Cassini launched aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur on 15 October 1997, Cassini had been active in space for nearly 20 years, with 13 years spent orbiting Saturn, studying the planet and its system since entering orbit on 1 July 2004. The voyage to Saturn included flybys of Venus (April 1998 and June 1999), Earth (August 1999), the asteroid 2685 Masursky, and Jupiter (December 2000). Its mission ended on 15 September 2017, when Cassini flew into Saturn’s upper atmosphere and burned up at a very high temperature, in order to prevent any risk of contaminating Saturn’s moons, some of which have active environments that could potentially bear life. (At that point Cassini lacked sufficient power to leave the Saturn system so it could only be left in orbit where it might collide with a moon or be destroyed). The mission is widely perceived to have been successful beyond expectation. Cassini-Huygens has been described by NASA’s Planetary Science Division Director as a “mission of firsts”, that has revolutionized human understanding of the Saturn system, including its moons and rings, and our understanding of where life might be found in the Solar System.
Cassini‘s original mission was planned to last for four years, from June 2004 to May 2008. The mission was extended for another two years until September 2010, branded the Cassini Equinox Mission. The mission was extended a second and final time with the Cassini Solstice Mission, lasting another seven years until 15 September 2017, on which date Cassini was de-orbited by being allowed to burn up in Saturn’s upper atmosphere.
The Huygens module traveled with Cassini until its separation from the probe on 25 December 2004; it was successfully landed by parachute on Titan on January 14, 2005. It successfully returned data to Earth for around 90 minutes, using the orbiter as a relay. This was the first landing ever accomplished in the outer Solar System and the first landing on a moon other than our own. Cassini continued to study the Saturn system in the following years.
At the end of its mission, the Cassini spacecraft executed the “Grand Finale” of its mission: several risky passes through the gaps between Saturn and Saturn’s inner rings. The purpose of this phase was to maximize Cassini‘s scientific outcome before the spacecraft was destroyed. The atmospheric entry of Cassini effectively ended the mission, although data analysis and production will continue afterwards.
Haloed – Esper
somejerk – Savage
Anomalie – New Space
MACROSS 82-99 – Fugaz (feat. mothica)
The Polish Ambassador – Ritual Revival
Deeb – Fluid Dynamics
Kuartz – She Want A Condo In New York
Dday One – Everyday
Chairman Maf – SMiLES
Madvillain – Accordian (Instrumental)
Nicola Cruz – Invocacion
Jay Dee – Lightworks
Danny Brown – Grown Up (Instrumental)
Danny Brown – Grown Up
Pretty Lights – Lost and Found (ODESZA Remix)
La Fine Equipe – Move Out
Waajeed – The Doo Wops
Commodo – Itchin
Nosaj Thing – Nowhere
Waajeed – The Dragon
Jay 5ive & Kromestar – Wishful Thinking (Om Unit remix)
NASA has reported a catastrophic event is taking place in space, but scientists are still investigating what exactly has happened or happening. Mysterious flashes of X-rays beamed towards Earth before vanishing just 24 hours later, leaving scientists to investigate the source. Initial findings suggest it came from a “completely new type of cataclysmic event”. The phenomenon was captured by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, stemmed from a galaxy 10.7 billion light years away. The X-ray source, is located in the sky known as Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S).
TRCKLST: 01.LORN – VESTIGE I 02.Alix Perez – Ghosts 03.Ivy Lab – Forex VIP 04.Signs – Paper Bag 05.Noisia – Mantra (Mat Zo Remix) 06. Noisia – Miniatures (MonoPoly Remix) 07.Space People – Wet ft. Nasty Nigel 08.Abnormal – Gang Starrs From Another World 09.yunis – yunis – Make It 10.Shades – Sleaze w/ Ivy Lab 11.Om Unit vs Kromestar – Solar Cyle (Melody Mix) 12.Nicola Cruz – Bruxo 13.Liquid Bloom & Numatik – Stand With Us To Bless The Waters (Twin Shape Remix) 14.Sicaa – Altitude 15.Pavel Dovgal – VHS 16.Chairman Maf – LiTTLE WHiTE LiES 17.My Kingdom – Missing Earth 18.Djemba – All Ages 19.Nicola Cruz – Tzantza 20.Rebel Musical – Black Sun
Earth’s magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth’s interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun. Its magnitude at the Earth’s surface ranges from 25 to 65 microteslas (0.25 to 0.65 gauss). Roughly speaking it is the field of a magnetic dipole currently tilted at an angle of about 10 degrees with respect to Earth’s rotational axis, as if there were a bar magnet placed at that angle at the center of the Earth. The North geomagnetic pole, located near Greenland in the northern hemisphere, is actually the south pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, and the South geomagnetic pole is the north pole. Unlike a bar magnet, Earth’s magnetic field changes over time because it is generated by a geodynamo (in Earth’s case, the motion of molten iron alloys in its outer core).
While the North and South magnetic poles are usually located near the geographic poles, they can wander widely over geological time scales, but sufficiently slowly for ordinary compasses to remain useful for navigation. However, at irregular intervals averaging several hundred thousand years, the Earth’s field reverses and the North and South Magnetic Poles relatively abruptly switch places. These reversals of the geomagnetic poles leave a record in rocks that are of value to paleomagnetists in calculating geomagnetic fields in the past. Such information in turn is helpful in studying the motions of continents and ocean floors in the process of plate tectonics.
1.SKULS – Blok 2.POLAAR – Flutter 3. Mungo’ Hi Fi ft. Charlie P Rules of the dance (Kahn Remix) 4.Joker – Scene 1 (Qo.Nos) 5.Pixelord – UFO 6.Mala – Looney 7.Goth-Trad – Invasion 8.Thelem – Elemental Fears 9.Om Unit – Soil (Om unit Edits) 10.Mudra – Vajra 11.Zomby – Digital Smoke 12.Moniker – Caligula 13.Famelik – INSECTES 14.Clipping. – Dream 15.Commodo, Gantz, Kahn – AMK 16.Jon Phonics – Seeta 17.Commodo – Sleepwave 18.Ultroniks – FLOWERS LED 19.Mostapace – Behag 20.DJ Pound – Trades 21.Ital Tek – Doom/Dream
A wormhole or “Einstein-Rosen bridge” is a hypothetical topological feature that would fundamentally be a shortcut connecting two separate points in spacetime. A wormhole may connect extremely long distances such as a billion light years or more, short distances such as a few feet, different universes, and different points in time. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in spacetime.
For a simplified notion of a wormhole, space can be visualized as a two-dimensional (2D) surface. In this case, a wormhole would appear as a hole in that surface, lead into a 3D tube (the inside surface of a cylinder), then re-emerge at another location on the 2D surface with a hole similar to the entrance. An actual wormhole would be analogous to this, but with the spatial dimensions raised by one. For example, instead of circular holes on a 2D plane, the entry and exit points could be visualized as spheres in 3D space.
Goth-Trad feat. Dalek– SKIN NO LONGER SCARS
Kozmo – Baria
Monk’ – Saudade
La Fine Equipe – Chomsky Says
DJ Shadow – Bergschrund (feat. Nils Frahm)
Machinedrum – Stronga
Tor – Lux
Long Arm – The Roots
Darkside – DARKSIDE
Various Artists – Sorg remix
Illum Sphere – An Old Escape (Kill Them Kill) (Dabrye Remix)
The Andromeda Galaxy (/ænˈdrɒmᵻdə/), also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth. It is the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way and was often referred to as the Great Andromeda Nebula in older texts. It received its name from the area of the sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda, which was named after the mythological princess Andromeda.
Being approximately 220,000 light years across, it is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which also contains the Milky Way, the Triangulum Galaxy, and about 44 other smaller galaxies. Despite earlier findings that suggested that the Milky Way contains more dark matter and could be the largest in the grouping, the 2006 observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that Andromeda contains one trillion (1012) stars: at least twice the number of stars in the Milky Way, which is estimated to be 200–400 billion.
TRCKLST : 1. The Cinematic Orchestra – All Things to All Men (feat. Roots Manuva) 2. Flying Lotus – Coronus, The Terminator 3. Oddisee – Better Late 4. LV – Balance Spring 5. Homeboy Sandman – Heart Sings 6. Guts – Musicotherapy 7. Late Night Radio – Amnesia (ft. Kevin Donohue) 8. Kaytranada – Weight Off (feat. BADBADNOTGOOD) 9. Blank Banshee – Dreamcast 10. Submerse – Let’s Never Come Back Here Again 11. Nicolas Jaar – Work It 12. Flying Lotus – Putty Boy Strut 13. Gramatik – Native Son feat. Raekwon & Orlando Napier 14. Om Unit – Dark Sunrise (ft.Tamara Blessa) 15. Kijk Een Ster – Maby For Koes 16. Fixate – Molecules 17. Deft – For Sudden 18. Samiyam – Dartgun 19. HOME – Oort Cloud 20. Mount Kimbie – Ode to Bear 21. Sweatson Klank – Contemplate 22. Ambassadeurs – M.O.P.E 23. Elaquent – Trashy 24. B. Lewis – Day 3: Diary of a Maniac 25. Ruddyp – Addicted 26. Keemoh – Kmxflx 27. heRobust – Dopplegang Bang 28. Ghost – A Tale of Life Part 5 29. Deeb – Outskirts 30. Tor – Two Suns 31. AbJo – Introspection 32. The unused word – The Healer (Acoustic Cover) 33. Erykah Badu – The Healer 34. J.Dilla – Body Movin’ Feat. J.Rocc & Karriem Riggins 35. pete rock – SOUL BROTHER (Explicit Version) 36. DJ Spooky that subliminal kid-galactic funk (tau_ceti_mix) 37. Sense of The Q4 – Burned Bridges 38. CHOMSKY (La Fine Equipe) “Lactose Intolerance” 39. Marvin Gaye; Ambassadeurs – Aint That Perculiar (Ambassadeurs Reconstruct) 40. Hydeout – reflection eternal 41. J-88 – Get It Together (Madlib Remix) 42. Bonobo – Kong 43. Dabrye – Hot Mating Ritual 44. Souleance – Biscornu 45. RJD2 – The Perfect Occasion 46. Dam-Funk – The Acceptance 47. Mux Mool – Payback 48. BEAR|FOOT – Get U Outta My Head
Cosmic dust is dust which exists in outer space. Most cosmic dust particles are between a few molecules to 0.1 µm in size. A smaller fraction of all dust in space consists of larger refractory minerals that condensed as matter left the stars. It is called “stardust” and is included in a separate section below. The dust density in the local interstellar medium of the Local Bubble is approximately 10−6 × dust grain/m3 with each grain having a mass of approximately 10−17 kg.
Cosmic dust can be further distinguished by its astronomical location: intergalactic dust, interstellar dust, interplanetary dust (such as in the zodiacal cloud) and circumplanetary dust (such as in a planetary ring). In the Solar System, interplanetary dust causes the zodiacal light. Sources of Solar System dust include comet dust, asteroidal dust, dust from the Kuiper belt, and interstellar dust passing through the Solar System. The terminology has no specific application for describing materials found on the planet Earth except for dust that has demonstrably fallen to Earth. By one estimate, as much as 40,000 tons of cosmic dust reaches the Earth’s surface every year. In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter (“amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic–aliphatic structure”) that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars.
On August 14, 2014, scientists announced the collection of possible interstellar dust particles from the Stardust spacecraft since returning to Earth in 2006.
An equinox is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September.
On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the sun and atmospheric refraction. To avoid this ambiguity, the word equilux is sometimes used to mean a day in which the durations of light and darkness are equal. See Length of equinoctial day and night for further discussion.
Equinoxes on Earth
The equinoxes are the only times when the solar terminator (the “edge” between night and day) is perpendicular to the equator. As a result, the northern and southern hemispheres are equally illuminated.
In other words, the equinoxes are the only times when the subsolar point is on the equator, meaning that the Sun is exactly overhead at a point on the equatorial line. The subsolar point crosses the equator moving northward at the March equinox and southward at the September equinox.
The equinoxes, along with solstices, are directly related to the seasons of the year. In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox (March) conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures and is considered the New Year in the Persian calendar or Iranian calendars as Nouroz (means new day), while the autumnal equinox (September) marks the beginning of autumn. In the southern hemisphere, the vernal equinox occurs in September and the autumnal equinox in March.
The first direct gravitational wave observation was made on 14 September 2015 and was announced by the LIGO and Virgo interferometer collaborations on 11 February 2016. The waveform, detected by both LIGO observatories, matched the predictions of general relativity for a gravitational wave emanating from the inward spiral and merger of a pair of black holes and subsequent “ringdown” of the single resulting black hole. The signal was named GW150914 (i.e., “Gravitational Wave 2015–09–14“). This was also the first observation of a binary black hole merger, demonstrating the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems, and that such mergers could occur within the current age of the universe.
This first observation was reported around the world as a remarkable accomplishment for many reasons. Efforts to prove the existence of such waves had been ongoing for over fifty years, and the waves are so minuscule that Einstein doubted they could ever be detected. The waves given off by the cataclysmic merger of GW150914 reached Earth as a ripple in space-time that changed the length of a 4-km LIGO arm by a tiny fraction of the width of a proton, proportionally equivalent to changing the distance to the nearest star by one hair’s width. The energy released during the brief climax of the event was immense, with about three solar masses converted to gravitational waves and radiated away at a peak rate of about 3.6×1049 watts — more than the combined power of all light radiated by all the stars in the observable universe. The observation was also heralded as confirming the last remaining unproven prediction of general relativity, and validating its predictions of space-time distortion in the context of large scale cosmic events, as well as inaugurating a new era of gravitational-wave astronomy, allowing probing of violent astrophysical events unobservable until now.
Interstellar travel is the term used for hypothetical manned or unmanned travel between stars. Interstellar travel will be much more difficult than interplanetary spaceflight; the distances between the planets in the Solar System are less than 30 astronomical units (AU)—whereas the distances between stars are typically hundreds of thousands of AU, and usually expressed in light-years. Because of the vastness of those distances, interstellar travel would require either great speed, a high percentage of the speed of light, or huge travel time, lasting from decades to millennia or longer.
The speeds required for interstellar travel in a human lifetime far exceed what current methods of spacecraft propulsion can provide. Even with a hypothetically perfectly efficient propulsion system, the kinetic energy corresponding to those speeds is enormous by today’s standards of energy production. Moreover, collisions by the spacecraft with cosmic dust and gas can produce very dangerous effects both to passengers and the spacecraft itself.
A number of strategies have been proposed to deal with these problems, ranging from giant arks that would carry entire societies and ecosystems, to microscopic space probes. Many different spacecraft propulsion systems have been proposed to give spacecraft the required speeds, including nuclear propulsion, beam-powered propulsion, and methods based on speculative physics.
For both manned and unmanned interstellar travel, considerable technological and economic challenges need to be met. Even the most optimistic views about interstellar travel see it as only being feasible decades from now—the more common view is that it is a century or more away. However, in spite of the challenges, if interstellar travel should ever be realized, then a wide range of scientific benefits can be expected.
Water on Mars exists today almost entirely as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapour in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil. The only place where water ice is visible at the surface is at the north polar ice cap. Abundant water ice is also present beneath the permanent carbon dioxide ice cap at the Martian south pole and in the shallow subsurface at more temperate latitudes. More than five million cubic kilometers of ice have been identified at or near the surface of modern Mars, enough to cover the whole planet to a depth of 35 metres (115 ft). Even more ice is likely to be locked away in the deep subsurface.
Featuring Kode 9, Kuedo, Rudi Zygadlo, Broken Haze, Circulations Records, All City Records, Daisuke Tanabe, Yosi Horikawa, XLII, Memory 9, Ninja Tune, Kid Kanevil, Om Unit, Paul White, One Handed Music, BD1982, Illum Sphere, Fink, Emika, Mux Mool, Ernest Gonzales, Paper Tiger, Sesped, Jay Scarlett, Elliott Yorke (Royalty), Kan Sano, Onra and many more.
Worldwide artists contribute to Nihon Kizuna music compilation in aid of Japan disaster relief effort
Over 40 international artists have donated music for the Nihon Kizuna compilation in aid of the Japan disaster relief effort. Nihon Kizuna, or 日本絆 in Japanese roughly translates as ‘bond of friendship with Japan’.
Following the earthquake and tsunami which devastated the northern coast and prefectures of Japan on Friday March 11th 2011, a small group of Tokyo-based artists (from Japan, Ukraine and France) and one visiting London-based journalist (from Italy) decided to pull their efforts and contacts together to do the only thing they could to help the country and its people – sell music to raise awareness of the devastation that hit the area and raise money for its people and the relief effort.
The motivation behind Nihon Kizuna was simple: in face of the feeling of helplessness many felt here in Japan in the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami this compilation seemed like the best way to express our support and love for the country and its people. Amid widespread scaremongering and panic from the foreign media it felt only right to stand tall alongside the people of Japan who have always welcomed foreign artists and musicians with open arms and hearts.
The compilation was put together in five days thanks to the internet. Every artist and/or label on the compilation donated a track, either previously released, unreleased or created especially for the occasion. Many of the tracks, artists and labels on the compilation have a direct relation to Japan, further highlighting the connection many people outside of the country feel towards Japan in the current situation. It’s no small thing to say that many of those involved feel a kinship to the country regardless of whether or not they’ve ever lived in or visited the country.
Nihon Kizuna is released on Friday March 18th using Bandcamp as a selling platform and with payments handled via Paypal. This will be followed by a release on iTunes Japan in the week of March 21st – as many Japanese residents do not use Paypal.
The compilation will cost £10, $15, 1,500Y or 12E and there will be the possibility to donate more should people want to via Bandcamp. The compilation will be available on iTunes Japan until the end of March, while the Bandcamp page and this website will stay up for the foreseeable future.
All proceeds from the compilation will be given to the Japan Red Cross directly.
Artists and labels involved in the compilation include Kode 9, Kuedo, Rudi Zygadlo, Broken Haze, Circulations Records, All City Records, Daisuke Tanabe, Yosi Horikawa, XLII, Memory 9, Ninja Tune, Kid Kanevil, Om Unit, Paul White, Illum Sphere, One Handed Music, BD1982, Fink, Emika, Mux Mool, Ernest Gonzales, Paper Tiger, Sesped, Jay Scarlett, Elliott Yorke (Royalty), Kan Sano, Onra and many more.
Represented on the compilation are over 7 countries, 40 artists and 10 labels.
This news is for immediate release. We ask that you please help us spread the word about this as far as possible to encourage people to give their money for a good cause. With over 40 tracks not only does this compilation constitute value for money it will also help with the relief and reconstruction effort in Northern Japan.
Full tracklist, purchase links and hi res images can be found below.